A Ball Grid Array (BGA) is a surface mount technique used in printed circuit board manufacturing and rework. BGA requires a designated BGA machine that works by administering heat to the designated component or chip on a printed circuit board, allowing the solder underneath to melt in order for the chip to either be installed or removed from a PCB. Here’s a step-by-step of how the removal and replacement of a ball grid array chip works using a BGA machine:
- The process begins with an experienced technician applying liquid flux to the bottom of a chip and, with the help of an air compressor, distributes the flux underneath the chip in preparation of removal.
- Using the BGA machine, the technician creates a profile for the damaged PCB which is essentially a set of guidelines for the machine to follow pertaining to removal or installation of a chip.
- Following the creation of the profile, the machine automatically starts the heating process, removes the damaged component and cools down the board.
- The technician prepares a new component. Most chip components are manufactured with solder balls already attached underneath for immediate installation, however, not all components are manufactured this way and therefore need to go through the process of reballing; a technician must attach each individual solder ball using flux, a custom stencil, and a BGA Machine to attach the solder to the component.
- The component is attached to the board, in the same way it was removed: by following the same designated profile and applying enough heat to melt the solder to the board. Of course, proper cool down time is imperative.
- Finally, the technician cleans any remaining flux and checks the board for quality assurance using a designated X-ray machine to test for bridges, solder cracks, and alignment issues.
Unfortunately, BGA machines are quite costly and the process requires experience, so if a damaged BGA on a PCB needs repair, it should be taken to a company that specializes in BGA repair and rework on PCBs and should not be attempted without proper training and experience. BGA surface mounting or removal is a careful, tedious process as the technician has to judge exactly how much heat to apply to the board. Lack of heat can result in solder pads detaching from the board along with a damaged component, and too much heat can inflict damage to other components, traces, or result in a warped board.
AER Technologies has the technology and expertise to expertly replace your damaged BGA. Give AER Technologies a call today for a free quote at (714) 446-6083 or visit our website at www.pcboardrework.com.